ET Seton Institute


Biographical Information about Ernest Thompson Seton

Seton, AKA “Chief”, AKA “Black Wolf” was an award winning wildlife illustrator and naturalist who was also a spell-binding storyteller and lecturer, a best selling author of animal stories, expert with Native American Sign language and early supporter of the political, cultural and spiritual rights of First Peoples. He was born August 14, 1860, in South Shields, Durham, England, of Scottish ancestry (both sides of the family fought for The Old and New “Pretenders”).

He was the eighth of ten brothers; the only sister died at age 6.

Family portrait, 1889

The family, with the exception of a couple of the oldest brothers, went to Lindsay, Ontario, Canada in 1866, after his father, Joseph Logan Thompson, had lost his fortune as a ship-owner. Joseph did not make a good farmer, and by 1870 they had moved to Toronto where he was employed as an accountant. Ernest Evan Thompson (Seton’s given name) went to Toronto schools for his basic education.

He was active in art from his early teens. A woman prominent in the Toronto art community became his mentor in this field, giving him advice (and money) to continue his studies. He won the Gold Medal for art before he was 18. At 19 (1879) he went to London to study art where he won a seven-year scholarship at the Royal Academy of Art; however, he did not stay in the program very long.  By 1881 his health was so bad from poor living conditions and bad eating habits that a cousin wrote his mother saying that she better get him back to Canada before he died. His family sent him a steerage ticket and he went back to Toronto.  Once back home and recovered, he no longer felt welcome under his father’s roof.  

He found work illustrating a set of Christmas cards that brought enough money to join two of his older brothers who were homesteading in Manitoba, near what is now the small town of Carberry.  He and his good friend William G. A. (Willie) Brodie, Jr. boarded a farm train with sixty chickens, four geese and four turkeys bound for Winnipeg in March 1882.  Willie’s father, Dr. William Brodie served as the boys’ mentor in natural history, leading field trips to the marshland around Toronto.  As they prepared for the trip west, he advised Seton to keep a daily journal and to record everything of interest on the same day.  

Once in Manitoba, Seton had a hard time staying focused on farming. He was easily distracted by the natural surroundings, spending his time watching the birds and animals instead of plowing fields.  He collected specimens of flora and fauna, took careful measurements and kept records in his journal.  Willie helped him identify many of the birds and insects they saw until he was tragically killed in an accident. His death was a heavy blow to Seton.

Pocket Gopher 1892

His natural history research in Manitoba involved activities such as  counting all the feathers on a grackle, learning the songs of the various birds and watching prairie chickens dance.  He would go off into the Carberry Sandhills for days on end. This behavior was frowned upon by the locals and he earned a reputation for being lazy and odd.   Here he wrote his first natural history articles and started corresponding with the Smithsonian Institute and submitting specimens to the US Biological Survey.  He also began exchanging study skins with other naturalists both in Canada and the United States, including Theodore Roosevelt.

His first visit to the United States was in December of 1883. He went to New York where he met many naturalists, ornithologists, artists and writers.  He became life-long friends with Frank Chapman, William Hornaday, Elliott Coues and many others.  From then until the late 1880’s he spent his time between Carberry, Toronto and New York. He became an established wildlife artist, and was given a contract in 1885 to do 1,000 mammal drawings for the Century Dictionary.  He also spent time at the New York Art Student’s League where he  met Daniel Carter Beard.

Sleeping Wolf shown at The Grand Salon, Paris, 1891

In the early 1890’s he went to Paris to continue his education in art.  He studied at the Académie Julian where he befriended the likes of Robert E. Henri, E. W. Redfield, Irving Coues and others  destined to become well known American artists.  This was where he did the research for his first published book, The Art Anatomy of Animals.  His painting “The Sleeping Wolf” hung “on the line” in the Paris Salon in 1891. His next painting “Awaited in Vain” AKA “The Triumph of the Wolves” was rejected by the Salon. Later it was exhibited at the First World’s Fair in Chicago in 1893 as the entry from Manitoba. There was a lot of controversy about the painting, in Ontario as well as Manitoba, but ultimately, the painting hung in the exhibition and Seton was appointed Official Naturalist to the Government of Manitoba, a title he held until his death in 1946.

He had trouble with his eyes caused by too much close work while developing the Anatomy book.  A doctor advised him not to use his eyes heavily for at least six months or he would go blind. So he left France and took a job hunting wolves in New Mexico for Mr. Fitz-Randolph, an acquaintance he had made on an Atlantic crossing. The story of “Lobo” came from this hunt, was first published in Scribner’s Magazine, and then with other stories in book form as Wild Animals I have Known. The book has been in print since 1898. It launched him into the celebrity world and he became a  famous writer, artist, lecturer/storyteller and environmentalist in both North America and in Europe. Seton wrote approximately ten thousand scientific and popular articles during his lifetime. He received an honorary Master’s Degree in Humanities from Springfield College, MA. 

 He married his first wife, Grace Gallatin, in 1896.  Raised in California, Grace a wealthy socialite, a pioneer traveler, the founder of a women’s writers club, a first rank suffragette, and a leading fund raiser for War Bonds in WWI. Grace was instrumental in organizing Seton’s first books.  They divorced in 1935.  Grace lived until 1959.  Their only child, Ann was born in 1904. She grew up to be a well-known historical novelist under the pen-name of Anya Seton.  Two of her books were made into movies. Ann lived until 1990.

In 1902, the first of a series of articles that began the Woodcraft movement was published in the Ladies Home Journal. In 1906 while in England he met with Baden-Powell, who was introduced to him by the Duke of Bedford. They exchanged correspondence from then until after BP founded the Boy Scouts, borrowing much material and many concepts from Seton without giving him credit.

In 1907 Seton made a 2000 mile canoe trip in northern Canada, with Edward Preble of the US Biological Survey as his traveling companion. The trip was funded by Seton. Although he was not a surveyor and did his mapping with only a good compass, the maps he made on this trip were used until the 1950’s, and are still considered extremely accurate.

In 1910 Seton was chairman of the founding committee of Boy Scouts of America. He wrote the first handbook (including B-P’s Scouting for Boys material) and served as Chief Scout from 1910 until 1915. Seton did not like the military aspects of Scouting, and Scouting did not like the Native American emphasis of Seton.

With WW I, the militarists won, and Seton resigned from Scouting. He revived Woodcraft in 1915, not as a children’s organization, but as a coeducational organization serving all ages, THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE OF AMERICA.

It prospered. In 1922 the children’s organization “Little Lodge” was merged with the Western Rangers, and became the Woodcraft Rangers. They were not interested in girls or adults, so this became a young boys organization. The Woodcraft Rangers became a co-educational organization by the early 1950’s.

Seton continued to run Woodcraft Leadership Camps in Greenwich until 1930 when he moved to Santa Fe. In 1931 he became a United States citizen.

In Santa Fe, he bought a 2,500 acre plot and built a school, The Seton Institute College of Indian Wisdom and continued to train leaders in Woodcraft.

In 1935 Seton and Grace were divorced. In 1935 (Jan.22) Seton married his second wife, Julia Moses Buttree (also known as Julia Moss Buttree) in El Paso, Texas. In 1938 they adopted a daughter, later Dee Seton Barber, who appeared with them on stage during Seton’s lifetime.

Julia was an author in her own right. Her first book, ‘Rhythm of the Redman’ was published before she married Seton. He did the illustrations for this book. She worked as Seton’s assistant, secretary, and they performed joint lectures in schools, at clubs, in churches and lecture halls of towns and universities, throughout the United States, Canada, France, England and the Czech Republic.

The Leadership camps continued in Santa Fe, until 1941 (WW II), but were not continued after the war, as Seton died in 1946, at the age of 86.

After Seton’s death, Julia continued to write and maintain the Santa Fe estate, and also lectured on her own, her last tour sponsored by the Audobon Society in 1967. She suffered a stroke in 1968 and died in 1975 in Santa Fe.

Dee Seton Barber died in 2006.

This page is based on material originally written by Dee Seton Barber

29 thoughts on “Biography

  1. Williums, Duke

    Hi, I bought “Trail of An Artist-Naturalist” published in 1946.
    I am very impressed by his works as naturalist and like to konw things about him more.
    As for “DeWinton” and Peequo Lake mentioned in “Lives of Game Animals” as well as in “lives of Game Animals”, where is the loaction ? I wonder.
    Some website told it is on Lake Ave. Greenwich CT, and some told on “Round Hill Road” .
    Could you make clear my question ?

  2. Giga

    His book “Wild animals I have known” and eslecially the story about the Winnipeg Wolf I read in my earliest childhood was actually one of the few books that left so much impression it made me cry and those wonderful and tragic stories about other animals destroyed my psyche as a child.
    Later when I grew up one day I was listening to a song called “The Cage” by one of my favorite metal bands Sonata Arctica and suddenly realized that the lyrics dealt almost the same as the story I loved in my childhood The Winnipeg Wolf. the song had the same motive about a captivated wolf and its feelings. from that day on J returned to the works of Ernest Seton Thompson and discovered more and more of this mans genius and the true brilliance and art of his works.

  3. Kate Snowdon

    I’m wondering whether anyone can help clear something up for me… I have collected two editions of ‘Lives of the hunted’ – a fourth edition copy of and a first edition copy. I’m wondering why the two books have credited Seton differently? (Thompson Seton vs. Seton-Thompson). Is it a misprint?
    Many thanks,

    1. Julie Seton

      ET Seton used variations of his name through his life. He was born Ernest Evan Thompson and his early work was signed EET. Later, he wanted to adopt “Seton” because it was an old family name, but his mother was against him taking the name, so he used “Seton-Thompson” (used EST as initials) until after his mother’s death, when he settled on “Thompson Seton” (ETS).

  4. Joel heiland

    Just re-read the Seton Biography again, it’s a w onderful and beautiful story. Our relationship with Wild animals would not be the same without his great writings

  5. Norman Farrell, Jr.

    Back in 1950 or 1951 my grandparents had moved to a new house and needed to downsize a bit. My family went up there and I remember someone using a crowbar to open up wooden crates of books from among which we were free to choose. They were mostly from the time my mom was growing up – Lad, of Sunnybank, for example, but also a few from my grandfather’s youth – and that is how I at age 11 met Ernest Thompson Seton. Lives of the Hunted, The Trail of the Sandhill Stag, and – best of all – Two Little Savages. I had just joined the wonderful world of scouting ( and not then aware of the link between that and my new books ) and I read and reread those books. My copy of Two Little Savages is inscribed “To Jay, from Uncle George – Christmas 1903, and I imagine my grandfather, then thirteen, probably spending the same kind of happy hours poring over its pages as I did.

    I see it described as a children’s book, and while I certainly loved it as a young boy, I have over the years returned to it and can say that it is to be savored at many levels that I did not perceive when I was ten or eleven. At that age I liked nature but was not ready to fully appreciate the drawings and detailed sketches on the margins of the text, and in the text itself much of the subtlety and many of the allusions were waiting for an older me to grow into them. I just took on faith, for example, that Emmy Grants meant something, but whatever it was I wasn’t going to let it get in the way of my headlong rush into the adventure of the book, being a vicarious fourth boy camping in a teepee next to Sam Raften’s swamp.

    That was a long time ago, but periodically I pull out the faded green book and lose myself in its pages, remembering what I loved before, and invariably discovering new things to reward my reading. I am in tune with the author’s sensibilities – as with the collarless stranger who hinted at a further meeting, but which fact Yan did not realize and so they never met again. Or with Caleb teaching the boys how to make a fire with a bow and sticks, and how he would have gone away “hating those boys” if he had failed (!!) Mr. Seton was clearly a warm, compassionate human, and as he is no longer with us, his book is a worthy representative of the man. In these days of uncertainty, it is an invaluable solace occasionally to reach for the old book and once again be a boy in the wonderful world of Yan.

    1. Julie Seton

      Hi Norman,
      Thanks for sharing your memories of reading “Two Little Savages”! If you browse through the comments on this website, you may see that you are not alone in your happy memories.
      You may like to read Seton’s autobiography, Trail of An Artist-Naturalist It was republished in 2015. You can find it on Amazon -look for “new edition”.

      Warm Regards,
      ETSI, Inc.

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  7. Gail K Crosby

    I first read my father’s copy of Two Little Savages in 1960, when I was 8. My dad’s name and the year 1911 is written in his hand on the first page. I still have it!
    My dad, the son of a physician became a dairy farmer so that he could live close to the land.
    I read the book over and over and at the age of 19 I built and lived in a tipi for a summer. The whole trajectory of my life was influenced by E. T. S. His turn to the teachings of native Americans was the healing force in his life as it was in my own.

      1. Joel heiland

        Wonderful the name Setonwas my introduction to nature writing and forever amazement of the aminal world. Thank you, Joel😃

  8. Joel Heiland

    I’m a For Ever sense age of ten “SETON FAN”. I’m also a fan of “BIRDS IN ART” an annual show held by the Woodson Art Museum of Wausau WIsconsin. This museum has a wonderful exhibition of the history of bird art that is missing an original bird painting by Seton, this exhibition would not be complete without a Seton painting. Anyone out there that could or would care to do this please.

    1. Julie Seton

      Mr. Heiland, When is the exhibit? You might want to contact David Witt at the Academy for the Love of Learning’s Seton Gallery.

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  11. Stephanie Fein

    My mother lived at Seton Village with Seton and Dee in the 1930’s. I have some old photographs of her time there with Seton. Contact me if you are interested.

    1. Julie Seton

      Hi Stephanie, I’m Dee’s daughter. I am very interested in some photographs. What was your mother’s name?
      Best regards, Julie Seton

      1. Stephanie Fein

        I just discovered your reply. My mother was Goldie Wolfenson. I will look at her papers and determine her dates at Seton Village and also look through the photos. I’ll get back to you.

  12. James Cregg

    I encountered Ernest Thompson Seton in an unhappy period in my youth through, ” Two Little Savages ” and a bit later by , ” Rolf in the Woods ” . These books carried me away and guided me for the rest of my life. I read them at 14 and later, and recently at 69. He is a great writer and person. I no longer have any interest in killing anything, but I still appreciate the humanity in the books.

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  14. Antina Marino

    Recently I went to a Flee-market in New York and found “Woodmyth & Fable” by Ernest Thompson Seton. I remember the Seton name of course, I live in Greenwich, CT and we have a Seton Reservation for Boys scouts. The little book was printed in 1904, it was a gift to Elizabeth Clackson in 1906 (I have no idea who that is) Now I can sit down with my grandkids and read this interesting little book.

  15. Dick Reed

    I live in an area of Northwest Montana that is being considered for “The Ernest Thompson Seton Wilderness Area” I am hoping that this will happen. Please contact the Flathead Nat’l Forest, Hungary Horse Ranger District for updates or to add your support.

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  17. Richard wizniuk

    As a young boy I was fastinated by the book ” Wild animals I have know”
    I was even more fasinated when I was informed by the teacher that this man had lived near our school( although she did not know exactly) I questioned many people and a few had heard of him but did not know the exact place. I would like any information anyone has about where he lived. Som have pointed to a place south East of the school about 2 miles. How ever I believe he would have found his inspiration along the Valley edge and viewing the great hills to the north,where the valley Tees off to two other valleys. A mong these valleys and hills are the animals he would have seen and interacted with. they still stir my heart and his book stirs my love of animals. Any relatives and people calling him a family friend can be proud of this man!

  18. Ron

    I recall an occasion in my childhood during the 60’s in Washington, D.C. when a number of students were pulled out of class to go on a short field trip. We had no idea why we were being segregated from our classmates or that we were being taken to another school.

    When we arrived, we were ushered in with students from other schools into an auditorium where a woman came to speak to us. I recall the woman having spoken both affectionately about Ernest Thompson Seton and in an appreciative manner for his accomplishments including having been a writer.

    I did not know it at the time but we had been selected because we had been identified as gifted young writers. I do not recall who this woman was though I had the sense she had been his spouse. However, the topic she spoke to us about that day had to do with encouraging us to develop our writing skills.

    Now, over forty years later, I have come to recognize how fortunate I was to have been a part of that group and to have had the teachers that I did who helped me with my writing. I take great pride in my writing and it is truly a valued skill.

    Thank you Mr. Thompson Seton and to the lady who spoke with us and to my former teachers and professors. I owe them all a great debt of gratitude.

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